Types of Engines
  Aug 28, 2023     talha seo  

Vehicles are differentiated on the basis of engine present in them. This makes difference in vehicle speed, mileage, and other features also. Engine is primer subject on which vehicles are selected for buying. If you are going for a sports car or manual, automatic engine type is the first concern for a customer.


Engine is a machine that converts the generated power in to motion in order to run a vehicle.


Engine types are based on the source from which it generates power. The source can be electrical or thermal.

  1. Thermal engines.
  2. Electrical engines.
  3. Physical engines.

Thermal engines:

Thermal engines by its names tells about is way of working. It includes a piston, cylinder and insulated battery. The energy of heat is converted into motion. The heat can be obtained by the process of combustion or non- combustion processed engines. Like,

  • Internal combustion.
  • External combustion.
  • Reaction engines.


On the basis of heat generation thermal engines are;

  • Combustive engines
  • Non combustive engines

Combustive engines:



By the direct combustion of petrol, oil or any other fuel with air inside the engine. The hot gasses produced in the process of combustion are used to drive the piston or in other words wok can be obtained. Chemical systems are also joined with these thermal engines. They can be called as:

  • Air breathing engines
  • Non-air breathing engines.

Air breathing engines:

Oxidizers are involved in these engines. They take oxygen from the external environment as an oxidizer.



Non-Air breathing oxidizers:

Some chemically made oxidizers are mixed within the fuel that’s why these are called non-air breathing engines.

Non-combustive thermal engines:

It includes a piston, cylinder, a thermal mass, thermal battery consisting a thermal electrolyte. In this the heat is stored by the engine when it blocks itself and enhances the fluid expansion. The thermal battery stores heat and activates electrical resistance which heat up the thermal mass. Stored heat in this process causes the expansion of the fluid. Electrical energy is also conserved and can be use to run electrical motor.


Internal combustion:


Energy is derived b the burning fuel which is burned in the specialized are or chamber called as combustion chamber. IC engines uses this kind of processes. Large volume of products formed or produced in this combustion however reactants used are limited. Expansion of the gases occur. Heat is obtained as a by-product and stored, does not provide any physical work. Internal combustion engines can generate 109000 HP to power a ship. Helicopters, cars lawnmowers have IC engines.

Internal combustion engines are differentiated from each other by measuring how many strokes a piston makes for a rotation of crankshaft. Now a days four stroke engine is used commonly that means it breaks the combustion reaction in four steps. 

  1. Induction.

Fuel mixed with air is injected in the combustion chamber.

  1. Compression.

       Mixture is compressed.

  1. Ignition.

Fuel is ignited by spark plug

  1. Emission. 

Of the exhaust.

External combustion engines:

The fuel and exhaust products are kept separately in external combustion engines. A separate chamber is present to burn the fuel and heat the fluid present inside the engine through the heat exchanger. In manner of heat production by combustion both engines internal and external are same that is burning stuff and obtaining energy.



In external combustion, fluid undergo thermal dilation-contraction in such a way that its chemical composition remained same. Fluid that is used may be in gaseous state or liquid. At the final stage the fluid is exhausted like internal combustion engine does or recycled to use the same fluid again.

Reaction engine:

It involves Newton’s third law of motion. Sudden thrust is generated by expelling reactionary mass. Action reaction forces are involved that are equal in magnitude but opposite in reaction. So equal force applied to back end that pushes the front end. This process is mainly used in jet engines.


Electrical engines:



Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy. Alternation current from the power grid or direct current from the batteries provide the electrical source. It has three types:

  1. Magnetic.
  2. Piezoelectric.
  3. Electrostatic.


The interaction between electrical flow and magnetic field is involved to generate work.


In these engines ultrasonic property is produced when electricity is followed thus work is created.


Like charges are used in it to repulse each other and rotate the rotor. These engines are expensive and need high voltage.



Physical engines:

Mechanical energy is stored and then used to generate work. Some physical engines are:

  • Clockwise engine.
  • Hydraulic engine.
  • Pneumatic engine.

They cannot reserve large amount energy and first ones to be used.


In this article we discussed about the types of engines. Their difference on the basis of work type. Physical engines are the old ones and mostly used in cranes. Electrical and thermal are used in advance vehicles depending upon how much energy to run a vehicle or attain speed. Pak wheels give information about vehicles and the type of engines used in them. Now a days best efficient engines are used in Toyota and Honda.

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